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Each drug has got its own advantages and disadvantages depending on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties.
Though there are numerous studies which have compared different opioids, only a few studies have been carried out to compare the recovery characterstics of fentanyl and butorphanol.
Because no single drug is ideal, two or more drugs are used in combination to provide balanced anaesthesia. It is a common practice among anaesthesiologists to include a small dose of narcotic analgesic as part of anaesthetic technique.
These narcotic agents in addition to providing analgesia also minimizes the requirement for potent anaesthetic agent during induction and maintenance of anaesthesia.
Intraoperatively, any untoward incident requiring emergency intervention was recorded and treated symptomatically.
At the end of operation, neuromuscular blockade was reversed using neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg and extubation was done when the patients got fully awake.
In addition, there should not be any major complications related to airway or cardiovascular system during recovery.In the present study, we have compared the recovery characterstics of above mentioned drugs when used in combination with propofol.After the approval of hospital's ethical committee and written informed consent from the patients, a prospective, randomized, double blind study was carried out among hundred American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 and 2 adult patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy.Injection midazolam 0.04 mg/kg (maximum dose of 3 mg) was given as IV premedication followed by the study drug i.e., either 2 mcg/kg of fentanyl or 40 mcg/kg of butorphanol.Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with propofol 2 mg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg was used to facilitate tracheal intubation.